Magnesium nitride

It is said again and again that nitrogen reacts chemically “like a dead dog”. No wonders, why it is used as a protective gas in the food and chemical industry. Most often, it is used to prevent the entry of highly reactive oxygen. If you still want to persuade it to react, you have to… Continue reading Magnesium nitride

Synthesis of silver acetylide

First, set up a gas generator to produce acetylene gas. Learn how to build one here. Now lead some gas from the apparatus into a perfectly clean test tube that contains 10 ml of ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (w(AgNO3) = 1%). At first a white precipitate forms, which soon turns gray. We can also see… Continue reading Synthesis of silver acetylide

Acetylene from Calcium carbide

Almost the entire organic chemistry of the GDR was based on acetylene. However, after the fall of the Wall, they really only cared about petrochemistry. Acetylene chemistry was disposed with many others. Acetylene, or better ethyne, is still a fascinating substance. So today we want to experiment a little with it. It is made by… Continue reading Acetylene from Calcium carbide

Colorful Fire Recipes

The last days of the year are always super colorful, especially when it comes to fireworks. But how do all these different colors work? This is not about short-lived colored flames, which can be created by holding the appropriate salts in a Bunsen burner flame. Examples are copper (II) chloride (or alternatively a mixture of… Continue reading Colorful Fire Recipes

Fluorescein synthesis

Equipment Porcelain bowl or small beaker (50 ml), crucible tongs, Bunsen burner, beaker (400 ml), if available: UV lamp. Chemicals Resorcinol (Xi), phthalic anhydride (Xi), concentrated sulfuric acid (C), dilute sodium hydroxide solution (w = 5%, C), dilute hydrochloric acid (c = 0.1 mol / l, Xi), possibly ethanol (F). How-to A spatula tip each… Continue reading Fluorescein synthesis

Synthesis of phenolphthalein

The name phenolphthalein indicates that the substance is made from phenol and phthalic acid. Equipment Test tube, beaker (400 ml), pipettes, filter Chemicals Phenol (C), phthalic anhydride (Xn), concentrated sulfuric acid (C), sodium hydroxide solution (c=1 mol/l; C), hydrochloric acid (c=1mol/l; Xi). How-to The same amounts of phenol and phthalic anhydride are mixed in a… Continue reading Synthesis of phenolphthalein

Industrial synthesis of oxalic acid

There are various methods for the synthesis of oxalic acid, some of which no longer play a role. However, they show pretty well, what imagination chemists can develop to produce even a simple substance like oxalic acid. Oxidation of carbohydrates Scheele already cited oxalic acid as an oxidation product of sucrose. C12H22O11 + 18 [O]… Continue reading Industrial synthesis of oxalic acid

Extraction of oxalic acid

Everyone knows plants that taste sour: there is sorrel (Rumex acetosa), wood sorrel (Oxalis acetosella), but also rhubarb. These contain free oxalic acid or acidic potassium salts. But many other plants contain oxalic acid too. They don’t taste particularly sour because the oxalic acid is stored in the form of neutral salts such as potassium… Continue reading Extraction of oxalic acid

How to make Chromium(VI) oxide

Chromium(VI) oxide also known as chromium trioxide and chromic anhydride. Chromic anhydride is a strong oxidizer. It reacts with chemicals very vigorously. Safety first ! Concentrate Sulfuric acid, chromium trioxide and chromium 6+ compounds are harmful. Be careful when handing corrosive chemicals. Do not remove chromium 6+ salts to drain directly. This experiment is dangerous.… Continue reading How to make Chromium(VI) oxide

How to make Potassium Chlorate from over the counter chemicals

KClO3 crystals grown over the course of 1 month

What to keep in mind Potassium Chlorate is used in many different settings including oxygen production, in explosives and as a cleaning agent. Potassium chlorate is a strong oxidizer. Bleach is corrosive What you will need to make Potassium Chlorate Bleach Potassium Chloride (KCl, this can be found as “no salt”, a sodium substitute for… Continue reading How to make Potassium Chlorate from over the counter chemicals