Electrolysis of ammonium chloride solution

You have certainly performed the electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions before. Why don’t you investigate the electrolysis behavior of aqueous ammonium chloride solutions? Once again you can learn a lot of chemistry. Electrolysis of ammonium chloride solution Fill an ammonium chloride solution (w = 10%) into a U-tube with a diaphragm. Dip two clean graphite… Continue reading Electrolysis of ammonium chloride solution

Copper tetramine complex

Chemicals Copper (II) sulfate solution (c=0.1 mol l) (Xn), ammonia solution (c=2 mol/l) (Xi), concentrated sulfuric acid (C) How-to a) Add ammonia solution drop by drop to the copper (II) sulfate solution in a test tube until a light blue precipitate forms. Then add more ammonia solution until a clear solution forms. b) Now add… Continue reading Copper tetramine complex

Testing for nitrogen

Equipment 2 beakers (100 ml), 2 watch glasses, spatula, dropper pipettes, Bunsen burner to cover the beaker. Chemicals Ammonia water (C), ammonium chloride (Xi), sodium hydroxide (C), red litmus paper, or universal indicator paper. How-to Put on protective goggles. Do not smell the gases directly! 1 Analysis of liquid ammonia solution A few ml of… Continue reading Testing for nitrogen

Ammonia fountain

Equipment 2-L round bottomed flask, 2-L beaker, 2-hole stopper, Glass tube (2 ft. in length), Ring stand and clamps, medicine dropper, Chemicals Dry NH3 gas or apparatus to produce NH3, Water, Phenolphthalein How-to Fill the 2-L flask with ammonia gas and seal it with a rubber stopper. Ammonia can be generated by gently heating a… Continue reading Ammonia fountain

Ammonium chloride mist

Equipment Beaker (100 ml) or test tube. Chemicals Conc. Ammonia water (C), conc. Hydrochloric acid (C). How-to Put on protective goggles. Keep both substances away from the body. For better contrast, it is recommended to use a dark (black) background. When ready, open both bottles and hold them close to each other. We can also… Continue reading Ammonium chloride mist

Water sensitive flash powder

Everyone should know, that it is not wise to extinguish every fire with water. Special hazards need special care. We can demonstrate this with an interesting pyrotechnic mixture: Negative X. This is a metal-catalyzed, strongly exothermic redox reaction which is initiated by nascent hydrogen (formed from ammonium ions of the acidic hydrolyzing salts and the… Continue reading Water sensitive flash powder

Magnesium nitride

It is said again and again that nitrogen reacts chemically “like a dead dog”. No wonders, why it is used as a protective gas in the food and chemical industry. Most often, it is used to prevent the entry of highly reactive oxygen. If you still want to persuade it to react, you have to… Continue reading Magnesium nitride

Synthesis of silver acetylide

First, set up a gas generator to produce acetylene gas. Learn how to build one here. Now lead some gas from the apparatus into a perfectly clean test tube that contains 10 ml of ammoniacal silver nitrate solution (w(AgNO3) = 1%). At first a white precipitate forms, which soon turns gray. We can also see… Continue reading Synthesis of silver acetylide

Experiments with acetylene

Addition of bromine to ethyne We put bromine water in a cylinder filled with acetylene gas and close it again. We make sure that only a little dilute bromine water is added. Then we shake well. Only a small amount of bromine is added. This is surprising, since a high level of bromine consumption is… Continue reading Experiments with acetylene

Acetylene from Calcium carbide

Almost the entire organic chemistry of the GDR was based on acetylene. However, after the fall of the Wall, they really only cared about petrochemistry. Acetylene chemistry was disposed with many others. Acetylene, or better ethyne, is still a fascinating substance. So today we want to experiment a little with it. It is made by… Continue reading Acetylene from Calcium carbide