How oil and natural gas once formed

In contrast to coal, it is not exactly known how oil was produced in the first place. We know, that oil is almost exclusively be found in sediment deposits below the sea. Crude oil can also be found near dried-out inland seas. In addition, we have found highly-complex compounds in crude oil, that can only… Continue reading How oil and natural gas once formed


Hydrocarbons build the backbone of organic chemistry. As the name suggests: they are only made up of carbon and hydrogen atoms. But, this bond is so powerful, that thousands of different molecules emerge from it! Hydrogen’s valency is one, which means it can only form a single stable bond with other molecules. Carbon on the… Continue reading Hydrocarbons

Blood and hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is produced in many reactions of oxygen in the blood. Since it’s toxic, the body has developed a great antidote. This is called catalase and is contained in the blood. You can do a nice experiment with it. Safety note: Hydrogen peroxide is explosive in high concentrations and when heated. Plus it’s corrosive.… Continue reading Blood and hydrogen peroxide

Detection reactions using hydrogen peroxide

Complexes with titanyl sulfate and with chromate With colorless titanyl sulfate, a deep yellow titanium peroxo complex is formed. TiO2+ + H2O2 -> [TiO2]2+ + H2O This reaction can also be used to detect dissolved titanium ions. Cr2O72- + 4 H2O2 -> 2 [CrO5(OH)]– + 3 H2O In the same way, a deep blue colored… Continue reading Detection reactions using hydrogen peroxide

Synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

Old procedures If the oxides of alkali or alkaline earth metals are reacted with oxygen, the corresponding peroxides are obtained. The barium peroxide is particularly important. 2 BaO + O2 -> 2 BaO2 Formally, we have the barium salt of hydrogen peroxide here. If we add a stronger acid to this salt, the weak acid… Continue reading Synthesis of hydrogen peroxide

Dehydration of sucrose using sulfuric acid

Experiment: decomposition of sucrose by sulfuric acid (sugar carbon experiment) The question is always the same: Is the water in the sugar chemically bound or is it – like crystal water from Glauber’s salt – easily detachable from the carbon? The true structural formula of sucrose shows C-H bonds, hydroxyl groups, and aldehyde groups. So… Continue reading Dehydration of sucrose using sulfuric acid

Nitrating acid and its uses

Sulfuric acid is essential in many organic syntheses because sulfuric acid is a substance with a high H+ concentration and at the same time with a strong dehydrating effect. Their protons act as a catalyst and, as such, serve to polarize bonds. The water-attracting effect is particularly useful in condensation reactions, such as esterifications. Concentrated… Continue reading Nitrating acid and its uses

Mechanism of acid catalysed esterification

Esters are condensation products of acids and alcohols. The ester synthesis is a chemical equilibrium. Are acids catalysts? The classic ester synthesis is an acid catalysis. Acids not only catalyze the synthesis, but also break down the ester itself. To advance the synthesis, one of the products is removed. The ester can be distilled off… Continue reading Mechanism of acid catalysed esterification

Leaching of minerals using sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid is considered a very strong and cheap acid. Most of it is used to break down minerals. This means the conversion of the generally very poorly soluble minerals into a substance from which the element or the desired compound can be more easily isolated. Extraction of raw titanium Titanium ores are primarily the… Continue reading Leaching of minerals using sulfuric acid

Industrial uses of sulfuric acid

Several millions of tons of sulfuric acid are produced annually. This compound is one of the most important raw materials in the chemical industry. Examples of usage are: Fertilizer industry Over 50% of the sulfuric acid is used here. When ammonia gas is introduced into sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4 is formed. The reaction of… Continue reading Industrial uses of sulfuric acid