Reactivity of hydrogen peroxide

Hydrogen peroxide is a strange substance. It is somewhat similar to water but has completely different properties. For example, you should never try to put out a fire with hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide can react as a powerful oxidizer in high concentrations. Unlike water, H2O2 is extremely reactive and breaks down easily. In the process,… Continue reading Reactivity of hydrogen peroxide

Peroxo Compounds

The peroxo acids, also called peracids for short, and their salts are of great importance for the chemical industry. They all carry the group -O-O-H or -O-O-. The perborates and percarboxylic acids are known as bleaching agents in detergents. Sulfur also forms peroxy acids: peroxomonosulfuric acid H2SO5 (Caro’s acid) and peroxydisulfuric acid H2S2O8. They have… Continue reading Peroxo Compounds

Percarbonate Compounds

Peroxycarbonates (also known as peroxocarbonates) play an important role in the synthesis of plastics, for example in the production of PVC or PE. Many heavy-duty detergents contain percarbonates as bleaching substances. Peroxy(di)carbonates contain bound peroxides The underlying peroxycarboxylic acid H2CO4 is not stable and rather hypothetical, but there are the anions HCO4– and CO42-, which… Continue reading Percarbonate Compounds

The structure of the H2O2 molecules

When it comes to the structure of hydrogen peroxide, many think of its chemical brother H2O. But you should also keep an eye out for O2 because H2O2 lies chemically right in the middle. Here are some rough structures that come up: The structures drawn in red are more or less correct. So, as so… Continue reading The structure of the H2O2 molecules

Testing for nitrogen

Equipment 2 beakers (100 ml), 2 watch glasses, spatula, dropper pipettes, Bunsen burner to cover the beaker. Chemicals Ammonia water (C), ammonium chloride (Xi), sodium hydroxide (C), red litmus paper, or universal indicator paper. How-to Put on protective goggles. Do not smell the gases directly! 1 Analysis of liquid ammonia solution A few ml of… Continue reading Testing for nitrogen

Ammonia fountain

Equipment 2-L round bottomed flask, 2-L beaker, 2-hole stopper, Glass tube (2 ft. in length), Ring stand and clamps, medicine dropper, Chemicals Dry NH3 gas or apparatus to produce NH3, Water, Phenolphthalein How-to Fill the 2-L flask with ammonia gas and seal it with a rubber stopper. Ammonia can be generated by gently heating a… Continue reading Ammonia fountain

Ammonium chloride mist

Equipment Beaker (100 ml) or test tube. Chemicals Conc. Ammonia water (C), conc. Hydrochloric acid (C). How-to Put on protective goggles. Keep both substances away from the body. For better contrast, it is recommended to use a dark (black) background. When ready, open both bottles and hold them close to each other. We can also… Continue reading Ammonium chloride mist

Magnesium nitride

It is said again and again that nitrogen reacts chemically “like a dead dog”. No wonders, why it is used as a protective gas in the food and chemical industry. Most often, it is used to prevent the entry of highly reactive oxygen. If you still want to persuade it to react, you have to… Continue reading Magnesium nitride

What is ammonia

Ammonia is the hydride of nitrogen, i.e. nitrogen hydride. It has the formula NH3. Its structure is not trigonal planar, but tetrahedral. Strictly speaking, it is a tetrahedral cutout. Compared to the ideal tetrahedron (like in methane), a free electron pair forms the fourth tetrahedron tip. At room temperature, ammonia is a colorless, highly corrosive… Continue reading What is ammonia

Frozen methane bubbles

Sometimes, during the winter, some very special structures can be found on frozen lakes: frozen methane bubbles. Watch this video to see some of them in action: How is methane gas created? Shallow lakes contain a lot of mud. The mud itself contains a lot of organic material, which is decomposed by bacteria. The bacteria… Continue reading Frozen methane bubbles